Ottawa streetcar maps 1915-1954

Click on maps for larger images.

Town and Crown – 1915 Report of the Federal Plan Commission on a General Plan for the Cities of Ottawa and Hull – Drawing No. 24B: Diagram showing daily volume and distribution of street cars

Ottawa - daily volume and distribution of street cars - 1915 - drawing24B

Carleton Maps, Data and Government Information Centre (MADGIC) – Ottawa transit system map 1929. Red lines are streetcar lines (“car lines”). And yes, you could have gotten (with a change or two) from Grove Ave. in Old Ottawa South out west to the beach at Britannia Bay.

SystemMap1929

Carleton Maps, Data and Government Information Centre (MADGIC) – Ottawa transit system map 1939. Red lines are streetcar lines (“car lines”).

SystemMap1939

Town and Crown – Greber Plan – Distribution of Street Cars and Buses 1948. Solid lines are street car lines. Numbers in circles are round trips per day. 245 round trips per day for the Bank Street B line.

Distribution of street cars and buses - Ottawa Transportation Commission - 1948 - plate_14

Carleton Maps, Data and Government Information Centre (MADGIC) – Ottawa transit system map 1951. City begins to stretch out, as green bus lines extend south, east and west. Red lines are street car routes.

SystemMap1951

Carleton Maps, Data and Government Information Centre (MADGIC) – Ottawa transit system map June 1954. Solid lines are street car routes.

SystemMap1954_June

Carleton Maps, Data and Government Information Centre (MADGIC) – Ottawa transit system map December 1954. Solid lines are street car routes.

SystemMap1954_Dec

Ottawa takeout in or near Centretown in a time of crisis

Takeout available during the 2020 crisis.

This is not a comprehensive list, it’s just ones I’ve noticed, mostly on Twitter.

Also see below for specialties including ice cream, bread and chocolate, book & flower deliveries, and what’s closed.

Open For Takeout

Ceylonta Sri Lankan restaurant – call 613-237-7812

Bread & Sons – open 9am to 1pm (weekdays only I think) – takeout only, card payment only (not accepting cash) – pizza, sandwiches, delicious baked goods

Pho Bo Ga LA – 784 Somerset Street West – call 613-230-2931 – takeout, and delivery over $30 – 5 to 10pm

Som Tum Thai – “open regular hours for pickup (10% off) and free delivery through Skip the Dishes”

J:unique Kitchen – “open for take-out and delivery. Get delivery through door dash, uber eats, skip the dishes. Our temporarily operating hours are Tuesday to Sunday 5PM to 8:30PM”

Wolf Down – delivery (Uber Eats, etc) or pick-up (pre-order at www.wolfdown.com or on our app). Pre-pay only.

Pure Kitchen

Lunch Ottawa – online orders a day in advance, otherwise for rush same-day orders call 613-238-9453. Pickup available at Bank Street location, delivery also available.
Lunch Ottawa is closed until further notice.

Responsible Choice – Love Local Delivery https://responsiblechoice.ca/lovelocaldelivery/
includes contact information and menus.  They now have more restaurants than I can list, they keep adding new ones.  Contact each restaurant directly to order and schedule your delivery.  Here are a few of them:

  • Ola Cocina Taqueria
  • Das Lokal
  • Bibi’s Middle Eastern Kitchen
  • North & Navy
  • Gray Jay
  • Grunt
  • Orto
  • Pi Rho
  • Bistro Ristoro
  • Pascale’s Ice Cream
  • Absinthe
  • Eldon’s
  • Buchipop Burrow Shop
  • La Fiesta Latina

Other lists

There are many many other lists online.  And I certainly don’t want to try to maintain a list of lists.  I will point just to the Bank Street list; if you scroll down (past the gift cards section) there are links to businesses offering takeout or delivery.  https://www.bankstreet.ca/businesses

Specialties

Moo Shu Ice Cream – order through online store for pick-ups at the following times: Wednesdays 12pm – 7pm, Saturdays 10am – 5pm (pickups now Saturdays only)

Purebread bakery (hosted by Moo Shu) – order through online store by Thursday 3pm for pickup on Saturday 10am-5pm

Cylie Chocolat – Contact them by email info@cyliechocolat.com

Saslove’s Meat Market (Byward Market) has partnered with neighbours Byward Fruit Market and House of Cheese, and they can deliver your meat, produce, and cheese orders together.

True Loaf bakery – “As of Friday March 27th, we will be open Tuesday to Saturday from 7am to 1pm. Closed Sunday and Monday.”

Red Apron – “You can pre-order any of our prepared meals to be delivered to your door each Monday through Friday.  Find the selection of available items on our Twitter feed @FreshontheShelf or website. Add in any multiple of our fresh baked goods, frozen cakes, lunch, preserves and shelf items.
Place your orders one day in advance if possible. The drivers start loading up the deliveries in our electric vehicles around 10am. 🚙⚡️ Call us with your specifics and we’ll help you place your order.  613.695.0417 ”

Seed to Sausage – Ottawa local delivery https://www.seedtosausage.ca/local-ottawa-delivery – curbside pickup at Gladstone location also available (call ahead for pickup) – meat and Bekings farm fresh eggs

Not Food

Perfect Books will deliver book orders to you.

Scrim’s Florist – “Open 11am-3pm Monday-Friday for deliveries only. Call us at 613.232.1733 for any inquires.”

terra20 offers environmentally-friendly products including unscented soap and dishwasher powder.  They do postal mail deliveries, they are also now offering same-day delivery in Ottawa for orders over $50 placed before 10am.

Closed Until Further Notice (No Takeout)

All Whalesbone locations.

Fauna

Union Local 613

Fairouz

Burgers n’ Fries Forever

Gongfu Bao (warning: site has autoplay background video)

Mazarine Brunch – “Being only open for a few months, it is with a heavy heart that we announce our closure temporarily until further notice.”

Wilf & Ada’s diner

Three Tarts

Supply & Demand (Wellington Street West)

Culture online in a time of crisis

What can you listen to and watch?  The following content is free, uninterrupted by ads (with a few exceptions that I will flag) and uninterrupted by news.  There are thousands of hours worth of audio and video listed below.  All of the content below is available in Canada (as far as I know there are no geographic restrictions).

Audio

I’m mostly an audio person.  Plus which audio uses much less bandwidth than video, which is particularly important on weekdays when high demand may interfere with the delivery of essential services.  Note that some BBC audio is only made available for a limited time, often for 30 days from date of airing.

  • Gramophone magazine – Artists in isolation: enjoy performances by musicians from around the world
  • audiobook – Landmarks (abridged) by Robert Macfarlane – in 5 parts – BBC Radio 4 Extra – 25 days left to listen as of March 21, 2020
  • audiobook – The Peregrine (abridged) by JA Baker, read by David Attenborough – in 9 parts – BBC Radio 4 – 8 months left to listen as of March 21, 2020
      • audiobook – The Peregrine (omnibus) by JA Baker, read by David Attenborough – normally there is an omnibus (a combined seamless version) for every 5 episodes, which should mean two for The Peregrine but there only seems to be one – BBC Radio 4 Extra – 24 days left to listen as of March 21, 2020
  • Sunday Morning – BBC Radio 3 – three hours of classical music, hosted by Sarah Walker
  • Essential Classics – BBC Radio 3 – three hours of classical music every weekday
  • The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy is 42 – BBC Radio 4 Extra – 17 days left to listen as of March 21, 2020
  • The Essay – BBC Radio 3 – 5-part thought-pieces around a theme. No omnibus; only separate episodes. – 1390 episodes available
    • The Essay – Higher Thoughts and the Meaning of Welsh Mountains – Episode 1, Snowdonia – “Jon Gower, writer and keen walker of the Welsh mountains, explores unique features of each of Wales’s five ranges, reflecting on what they mean to the people who live among them.”
  • In Our Time (Archive) – BBC Radio 4 – Melvyn Bragg and guests (usually university professors) discuss a topic.  It’s kind of like attending a university symposium. – One of my favourite shows.  – 896 episodes available
  • Moonrise – by Lillian Cunningham at the Washington Post – there are ads, but it’s a good enough podcast that I could endure them – “the origin story behind the United States’ decision to go to the moon” – in 12 episodes
  • 13 Minutes to the Moon – Season 1: The Apollo 11 story – BBC World Service – in 12 episodes
  • 13 Minutes to the Moon – Season 2: The Apollo 13 story – BBC World Service – has just started; only the first episode is available at the time of this writing
  • Desert Island Discs – BBC Radio 4 – “Eight music tracks, a book and a luxury: what would you take to a desert island? Guests share the soundtrack of their lives.” – over 2000 episodes available
  • The Life Scientific – BBC Radio 4 – “Professor Jim Al-Khalili talks to leading scientists about their life and work, finding out what inspires and motivates them”
  • Ramblings – BBC Radio 4 – “Clare Balding joins interesting people for a walk through the countryside”

For more audiobooks than I have highlighted above, you can check out:

I used to listen to CBC Radio literally all day long, mostly CBC Radio 2.  But now I listen pretty much exclusively to the BBC.  Mostly because I find the CBC hammers me with ads while BBC (from their website) is ad-free.  Nevertheless…

Audio – Podcasts I listen to

Podcasts I listen to, sorted by largest number of episodes I’ve listened to:

  1. 99% Invisible – by Roman Mars – it’s sort of a podcast about design, but I think of it more as a podcast of interesting things – this is free to listen to, but it does have ads (after the main episode) and is listener supported, you can donate to the PRX network
  2. The Memory Palace – by Nate DiMeo – this is sort of a podcast about history, but I think of it more like little carefully-crafted gems of stories, often with a strong emotional impact – this is free to listen to, but it does have ads (after the main episode I think) and is listener supported, you can donate to the PRX network
  3. Travel with Rick Steves – I don’t think anyone is going to be travelling for a long time, so this may be a way to voyage vicariously – Rick Steves is a good interviewer and ranges widely – it’s not just episodes about destinations, he also talks to travel writers and other authors, he has even done segments about space missions – currently at 597 episodes (I don’t know if all of them are online)
  4. Spacepod – by Carrie Nugent – she interviews a space scientist about their research, in some detail
  5. Talking Headways (audio only on libsyn, episodes with descriptions and transcripts on Streetsblog) – by Jeff Wood – “a weekly podcast about sustainable transportation and urban design” – listener supported, you can donate to The Overhead Wire on Patreon
  6. The Urbanist (from Monocle 24) – usually hosted by Andrew Tuck – “the show all about the cities we live in”
  7. BBC History Extra – an exception to my rule of only listening to BBC on the website, because this particular BBC podcast has no ads inserted
  8. Emperors of Rome – by Matt Smith – You can find it on Apple podcasts or the direct URL from La Trobe University is https://www.latrobe.edu.au/marketing/assets/podcasts/rssfeeds/caesar.xml
  9. Gresham College Lectures – this is what it says on the tin, lectures by university professors for a general audience, usually a series of lectures on a particular theme – you can find the audio podcast in Apple podcasts or the full videos of the lectures in the video section below
  10. When in Rome – by Matt Smith – this is a subscription podcast, it is starting its fifth series, you can subscribe through the Kickstarter (44 hours left as of this writing) – you can also find it on Apple podcasts or Google podcasts – “place and space in the Roman Empire”
  11. Carbone 14, le magazine de l’archéologie – France Culture

Video

Be mindful about when you’re watching video, as it can use a lot of bandwidth.

I literally never watch CBC TV (I can’t stand ads).  But anyway…

  • CBC Gem (online TV)
  • Curio.ca is a paid service that is temporarily free in the current situation – “Curio.ca is a subscription-based educational streaming platform … thousands of programs, documentaries, audio content and archival material from CBC/Radio-Canada”

Public Broadcaster Guides

Did Voyager Endgame wreck Star Trek?

Part One: The End of Time

In PopMatters, Nicole Berland puts forward an interesting idea: that the year 2379 is the end of Star Trek.

‘Star Trek’ and the Problem With B-4 and After 2379

While I think some of the connections made are an overreach, the core idea is very interesting.  Specifically, the idea that Voyager Endgame destroys Star Trek, and that beyond that the events of September 2001 broke American SF and post-war American idealism.

Idealistic, moral, open America, the Nuremburg Trials, Geneva Conventions, To Kill a Mockingbird America, Cold War moral high ground America, 60s civil rights (and race riot) America birthed Star Trek. Roddenberry’s message was clear: the future could be better.

Janeway effectively destroys that lineage when she uses a biological weapon to both do a targetted assassination of the Borg leader, and to destroy core infrastructure of Borg civilisation, with consequences for many or all of the slave drones that comprise Borg civilisation, all without even being at war with the Borg.

The moral high ground when TNG Picard refused to use Hugh as a technological weapon, and when even Voyager recoiled against Icheb being an engineered biological weapon, that moral high ground is lost.

And in a world of actions having consequences, Voyager gets off scot-free.  No one on Voyager has any consequences from the destruction of Borg civilisation.  It’s a kind of Star Trek introduction of sin.

And arguably the Star Trek primary timeline has been broken since then.  Since the return of the USS Voyager in AD 2378 (which aired in May 2001) there’s been no more optimistic moral high ground future.

When you add to that Sept 2001, which brought destruction and through later decisions broke the actual real world moral high ground, hopeful American SF may have been destroyed.

Part Two: Nemesis and Picard

It’s important to think about the context in which Star Trek: Nemesis is created and airs.  Set in AD 2379, it’s actually filming starting in November 2001, and airing a movie about a future in which a flying ship crashes into another flying ship on screens across America in 2002.

It bring the future into a very different present.  And aside from being a terrible movie (as humourously summarized by TV Tropes), it introduces a new Star Trek worldview that abandons hope.

All Star Trek since 2001 has featured destruction on a planetary scale, as if writers can no longer imagine personal-level tragedy and drama.

  • Nemesis: attack on Romulus, plan to kill everyone on Earth
  • Enterprise: planetary scale attack on Earth
  • Reboot: destruction of Romulus (and Remus presumably), destruction of Vulcan (which if Voyager’s Borg destruction didn’t already introduce sin to Star Trek, is ST reboot’s original sin).
  • Picard: Mars is on fire (plus Romulus was destroyed)

Star Trek was about a hopeful post-discrimination future.  The Next Generation was fundamentally about a hopeful, thoughtful, intellectual, post-capitalist future.  That’s the boundaries of the universe that Roddenberry created.

You can of course experiment with those boundaries; that’s the nature of art.  Galaxy Quest is great Star Trek.  The first season of The Orville is a fun tribute to TNG while exploring what it would be like to live in that universe as an ordinary person on a secondary starship, not a perfect character on the flagship.  The First Contact movie is an exploration of what it would take to transform Picard from his measured intellectual self to an emotional and violent man.  This is all legitimate.  This is exploring the world that Roddenberry built.

What’s not valid, what is universe-mining rather than world-building, is to set aside the rules of Star Trek, and to cast scorn on the fans and on science fiction.

I never really cared for science fiction. – Jean Luc Picard, in Picard 1×02

I argue that Star Trek II rescued Star Trek.  And did it by really deeply understanding and respecting the characters and themes of Star Trek.  ST: III and IV work with it to make a great movie trilogy.  After that V is terrible and VI is not great.  Generations tries to reach for a theme of immortality but would have needed a rewrite to reach it, and also gives Kirk a most unheroic demise.  DS9 is flawed, although it has some great episodes, but in many ways it’s barely Star Trek.  Voyager is a kind of Star Trek in reverse, trying to find something new to say by heading home rather than away.  But all of them, without exception, respect the rules of the universe.  Until Endgame.

After that, something was lost.  An attempt to reinvent what didn’t need to be reinvented.  A universe warped beyond recognition.  Nemesis directed by someone who didn’t like TNG.

Stuart Baird (helmer of only two other films, Executive Decision and US Marshalls, and long-time film editor) had no knowledge of Star Trek before becoming director of Nemesis. He even refused to watch any of the Next Generation TV series to prepare…

Den of Geek, Star Trek: Nemesis – What Went Wrong? (no link; autoplay video)

The reboot helmed by a Star Wars fan who didn’t understand Star Trek (and loved lens flare).

Jon Stewart asked Abrams for his perspective on the differences between the two properties. He likened “Star Wars” to a Western or Samurai movie and suggested that it “never felt like a sci-fi thing.” “Star Trek,” on the other hand, did.

“It always felt too philosophical for me,” he said.

That’s when Stewart … tuned out.

“I stopped listening to you when you said you didn’t like ‘Star Trek.’ – Los Angeles Times, J.J. Abrams reveals to Jon Stewart why he never liked ‘Star Trek’

And now Picard which tries clumsily to be adult (which was already done much better in The Orville) and which removes all of the hope and thoughtfulness of both TNG and Picard himself.

This is not the way to celebrate and extend a world and a future that fans enjoy and hope for.

When Roger Ebert reviewed Nemesis, his concluding line manages to convey my feelings about Star Trek post-2001:

Star Trek was kind of terrific once, but now it is a copy of a copy of a copy.

Star Trek II: The movie that rescued Star Trek

Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan rescued Star Trek.

Star Trek I came out in 1979.  It’s not very good.  Wikipedia can tell you all about it in minute detail.  Basically it’s super slow, with long scenes that are nothing but flying through special effects.

Coming a decade after the original series (setting aside the non-canon 1973-1974 animated series with everyone except Chekov), the spectacular boringness of Star Trek I: The Lack of Motion Picture could easily have killed Star Trek.

1982’s Star Trek II addresses this directly.  It literally kills most of the main bridge characters in its opening scene, in the play-within-a-play that is the Kobayashi Maru simulation.  “What about my performance?” asks McCoy.  “I’m not a drama critic”, says Kirk.

Thematically, Wrath of Khan is about whether Star Trek has run its course.  Do we still need the characters, does the show have any more to say?  Is it out of creative energy?  “How do I feel? Old”, says Kirk (at 51 in real world age, 52 in Star Trek age1).

1 Kirk is born in AD 2233; Star Trek II takes place in AD 2285.

Star Trek II written by people who really deeply understand Star Trek and its characters.  Which is kind of amazing in and of itself, considering that Star Trek is two good seasons and one not-so-good season, 79 episodes of varying quality from which to derive the core personalities of the characters and the tone and themes of the show.

What they find is a show that is about the core relationship between Kirk, Spock and McCoy.  That has humour and also a kind of Shakespearean theatricality.  And a show that still has something to say.

By framing Star Trek II as a reflection on The Original Star Trek, by giving it the ability to explore the consequences of those past episodes and past behaviours, it’s able to add a richness to the story.

There’s a man out there I haven’t seen in 15 years who’s trying to kill me. You show me a son that’d be happy to help. – James T. Kirk

And it is able to give the characters a richness as well.  This ranges from calibrated humour:

“Humor. It is a difficult concept. It is not logical.” says Saavik.
“We learn by doing”, says Kirk.  [pause, turbolift doors open]
“Who’s been holding up the damn elevator?” says McCoy waiting outside.

to failure and tragedy and new insights.  Kirk, for the first time, really makes a terrible strategic decision in letting the Reliant approach without putting up the Enterprise‘s shield’s, even after being reminded of protocol by Saavik.  Spock calculates the needs of the many against the needs of the few or the one.  Consequences, for once, weigh heavily.  “I haven’t faced death. I’ve cheated death. I’ve tricked my way out of death and — patted myself on the back for my ingenuity. I know nothing.” says Kirk

In the end, they exceed the limitations of Star Trek’s episodic format, and surface deeper themes.  Star Trek II saves Star Trek.

I feel young. – James T. Kirk

Continue reading

Ottawa LRT design issues

There were 8.4 million New Yorkers and at one point, I thought there were 8.4 million traffic engineers because everyone had really strong opinions. – Janette Sadik-Khan

The east-west double-tracked Ottawa LRT (Confederation Line, Line 1) is well designed.  It has complete grade separation, which means it never intersects with car traffic.  It is electrically-powered.  It uses modern Communications-Based Train Control (CBTC), enabling trains to be safely run with low “headways” (trains arrive closely together in time), even though the trains are switching tracks at the end of the line (e.g. the east-bound train arriving at Blair turns into a west-bound train, heading back west for a while on the same track it arrived on).

CBTC means that trains are substantially automated.  The CBTC system keeps track of all of the train locations.  To some extent once you decide on the train spacing, it is CBTC that decides how fast trains go, which rail segments trains are on, and what the settings of the track switches are.

The rail operators are basically in an oversight mode, monitoring things and dealing with exceptions.

I am not an expert in train systems, but what follows is my analysis as someone who has done a lot of computer network system troubleshooting.

Cascade Failure

In the design of complex systems, you want to avoid a cascade failure.  That is, the failure of a single component should not cause the failure of most or all of the entire system.  In the context of a rail system:

failure of a single train should not have a significant impact on the rest of the rail system.

Unfortunately in this area of design, Ottawa’s Light Rail Transit (LRT) currently fails.  The fundamental issue is not the doors, the issue is

when a train is in door failure mode, it cannot move under control of the CBTC system.

That means a train in door failure mode has to be excluded from CBTC.  But since CBTC controls all the movement of all the trains, in order to safely exclude a train from control you have to remove an entire track from control, and manually drive the train back, slowly, to a safe location or maintenance location.

But you’ve then converted your dual-track system into a single-track system, with trains going both ways on a single track.  As you can imagine, that’s a situation where you have to be incredibly careful, and clearly you can only use the track in one direction at a time.  So that’s why you go from 5-minutes-or-less trains to 15-minutes-or-more, because there is very complex and careful management needed behind the scenes to safely use the single track.

In short, removing a train from CBTC is a serious failure of the system, that causes dramatically reduced system capacity and dramatically longer spacing between trains.  It should have been the case that RTG and OC Transpo and city staff and whomever is involved in making these decisions did a risk matrix, and the risk assessment should have identified situations in which a train would have to be excluded from CBTC control and tried to minimize them.

In this specific example, as long as you can manage the safety issues of a train that has a door failure, you should continue to run that train under CBTC.  And there could be lots of human ways to manage the safety issues, including staff in the train and staff on the platform, as well as station announcements.

UPDATE: Ken Woods saysCBTC no longer needs to be cut out when bypassing doors.”  So this should fix the major cascade issue that leads to big train delays.

Also, for those of you who want to know more about solutions than design problems, I have highlighted OC Transpo’s Plans at the end of this post.  END UPDATE

The Whole Story

Now that we know the end of the story, we need to go back to the beginning.  Every component of the LRT is a design decision.  (In fact, the decision to have light rail rather than heavy rail is a decision in and of itself.)  While the design that won’t let a train travel under CBTC control is a single decision with huge consequences, the design that led to the door issues is a much longer story.

UPDATE 2019-10-16: This blog post is specifically about how door failures were happening, and how door failures could lead to a system failure.  The trains are complex machines running complex software; there are many other ways they can fail that I don’t address below.  END UPDATE

>> Low-floor vs. High-floor

There are basically two kinds of modern train design: low-floor and high-floor.  The difference is basically whether the wheels (the bogies, in train terminology) are within the floor space (low floor) or below the floor space (high floor).  Most metro systems (e.g. New York) have high floor, and you also see this in VIA Rail trains, which is why you have to go up a set of steps from ground level to get into a VIA train.

High-floor means either you need steps to get onto the train (which is no good for modern accessibility) or you need high platforms, with the rails fairly deeply below the platform level (e.g. as you see in New York).  High-floor also means that the space inside the train car is completely unobstructed, it’s just an empty box you can arrange as you want.

Modern trams are designed to work at street level, because in many cases they’re running on regular streets mixed with car traffic.  Since you can’t reasonably design either deep trenches into the street or periodically raise the sidewalk up dramatically for tram stops, modern trams are low-floor.

Since Ottawa has a totally grade separated system with dedicated stations, we could have chosen high-floor, but we didn’t.

Ottawa uses a low-floor tram design, the Citadis Spirit.

That means the wheels reach up into the interior of the train cars, which is why you get those characteristic humps inside the trains, usually with seating on them.  It also means you get a narrow corridor between the humps (which is the spacing between the wheels on either side of the train).

>> Seating

There are basically two kinds of seating design for transit: front and rear-facing seats, like you see on a bus, and side seating (perimeter seating), like you see on a metro system (e.g., again, New York).  You would generally choose side seating for a high-capacity system, which means most people are standing, and front and rear-facing for a more comfortable but lower capacity system.

A critical difference is that you can clear side-seating cars quickly, because most people are standing anyway.  If it’s high-floor side-seating it is even better, because the space itself is completely unobstructed so people can move freely.

I’m not going to link to this article in DailyHive, because it has autoplay video – TransLink considering side seating for new order of 203 SkyTrain cars – but I will quote from it

perimeter seating generally provides more overall carrying capacity within each car with its allowance for greater standing room. This layout also creates more vertical and overhead handrails for standing passengers to hold on to.

With wider corridors between the seats, such a sideways seating layout could make the trains more efficient for quick ingress and egress through the car doors.

Kyoto subway 1117 priority seat area 01
Priority seat area on Kyoto Subway 1117

Ottawa’s trams have a fairly conventional front and rear-facing seat arrangement, which in combination with low-floor means that there are some pinch points within the train.  In the worst case to get off at a station you might have to stand up, walk through a narrow corridor between seats, and then make your way through the people standing next to the doors.

There are lots of human-factor considerations about which kinds of seating people prefer.  See e.g. Chicago magazine – subway seating options.

>> The Overhead Bar

In general you want people equally distributed along the interior of your train car.  But Ottawa’s cars have very high grab bars with no straps hanging down, which means lots of people can’t reach the bars to hold on.  If you’re standing, you really want to have the comfort of a handhold.  Because of this, people are clustering near areas where lower handholds are available.

>> I’ve Got a Door in my Pocket

There are two kinds of door design.  In a metro system (e.g. yes, New York again) you have pocket doors, where the doors slide into the side of the car.  In Ottawa’s trams, the doors instead open out and over, physically moving outside and to the side of the doorway.

I’m no door expert, but doors that run back and forth on a track, doors that are mostly inside the side of the train seem like they would have fewer failure modes than doors that have to go through a complex range of motion to close, and sit fully exposed to manipulation on the outside edges of the doorway.

Be mindful that doors of either design fail on transit systems all the time; it’s the most common failure.  See e.g.

Train Design Summary

So basically the train things under design control are:

  • high-floor vs. low-floor, which determines how much usable space you have inside the train car, and some of the ease of movement within the car
  • front-facing seating vs. side-seating, which determines how much open space you have for standing passengers vs. seated space, and decides to some extent how easy it is to move within the train car
  • grab bar and straphanger design, which will determine where people are comfortable standing
  • door design, which to some extent determines what kind of failure modes your doors may have

>> Dwell Time

The amount of time a train spends at a station is called dwell time.  To minimize the amount of time it takes get from one end of the entire rail line to the other, you need to minimize the amount of time each train spends at a station.  This includes minimizing the amount of time doors are open.  Ottawa’s LRT doors are on automated timings, I believe of less than two minutes per station.

>> The Bus Legacy

The bus is very different from the train.  The bus is an entirely human-driven system.  Everything is under human control.  The driver can decide when to stop, where to stop, when to open and re-open the doors, everything.

The bus is also super-jolty.  In particular if the brakes are jammed on at a stop or due to cars or other roadway dangers, or due to acceleration when departing a stop.

The bus is unpredictable due to cars, so it may arrive at a time different from the planned schedule.

The bus in many cases is infrequent, sometimes running only every half-hour.

These characteristics make for certain very understandable human behaviours on the bus.

First, people will often try to sit down as quickly as possible, in order to avoid being standing when the bus jolts into motion.  Also people will try to stand up as late as possible, in order to avoid being standing when the bus jolts to a halt.  And in general people would rather sit than stand, due to the aforementioned jolting plus added bumpiness of the ride in general.

This means people are quite often late to exit the bus, and just push the bars to hold or reopen the doors, or shout at the bus driver (“back door!”) to get the doors open if they’re outside the automatic door cycle.

So: slow to exit the bus.

The unpredictability of the bus means that when people do see a bus, they will run to grab it, often requiring the driver to stop and reopen the doors.

So: in a rush to get on the bus.

The flow of passengers on and off the bus is managed by a combination of bus driver oversight and passenger control, including people stepping off and back onto the bus if it is super crowded, with the passengers inside holding the door.

These behaviours don’t translate at all well to the train, which is nothing like the bus.  The train is smooth, and the doors are entirely on automatic timing, and (outside of major system failure) there is another train coming soon.

>> Platform Human Factors

On a platform, you want people to spread out so that they are using all the doors equally.  But it’s just human nature that people tend to stop as soon as they reach the bottom of the stairs.  It will take some time for people to switch from the bus mindset of basically standing near a single location to automatically moving down the platform.

>> Rush Hour

The Commute as we call it, Rush Hour, is an entirely separate design issue about which I will probably do a separate blog post.  But since we can’t redesign the entire city, and change school and employer expectations and employee behaviour, we’re stuck with this super-peak of demand called Rush Hour.

So you have to design your system for Rush Hour.

Normally what would happen is your system is adapted as Rush Hour grows.  Your system changes as demand changes.  If you do have to switch to a new system once demand reaches a certain level, you switch early, let’s say at 75% to 80% of capacity.

The huge design issue in Ottawa was that we waited until our system was basically at 100% capacity before switching to a new design, before switching from Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) to LRT.  (I will set the unfortunate politics of Canadian transit that caused this late shift aside.)

That means we went from a 100% capacity Rush Hour BRT system to an LRT system that would have very heavy peak demand.

Very heavy demand is a transit planner’s dream in some sense.

Unfortunately it would be very hard to simulate this level of real-world demand.  You’d have to have literally thousands of volunteers.

Another option would be to gradually ramp up demand, and adjust step by step.  But with a complex bus system this would have been tricky and confusing, with buses removed gradually over time.

Presumably transit planners thought that by instead running the entire bus system in parallel for three weeks, they were doing the best they could at gradual demand increase, assuming people would slowly transition from bus to train during those weeks, so that by the end they would be running at full train demand.

What seems to have happened though is a step change in demand when the buses were discontinued.

And Now The Deluge

That step change in demand seems to have triggered a cascade failure, which goes something like this:

1. Buses are now dropping off all of their passengers at Blair and Tunney’s, creating peak demand that needs to be quickly cleared.  So there are two big boarding demand sources.

2. People are mostly going to work or to school, which means heavy demand to get off the train at uOttawa and Parliament Stations.

3. With the extra number of people added by the end of the parallel bus service, the design of the trains means that people are not getting to the doors in time.  This is a combination of design factors:

a. low-floor design means there are some narrow corridors in the train cars
b. front and rear-facing seating means there are lots of people seated
c. having lots of seating means people have to navigate their way past the seats
d. high grab bars means that standing passengers cluster in certain areas of the car where they can reach a handhold

Plus which let’s keep in mind that humans don’t like “crush load“.  People will stand together, but they’re not necessarily going to pack themselves together to fill the maximum capacity of the train.

4. The automated door timing that is part of short dwell times at stations means people are not able to get out at their station before the doors close.

For a passenger, not getting off at your station is basically a serious transit failure when you’re on a train.  If you need to get off at uOttawa and you can’t get off, you’re stuck either trying to train back or walk back, when you may have timed things to get to class or an exam.  Train transit systems must be designed so people can get off at their stop.

When people can’t get off at their stop they will understandably panic and try to get the doors open.

5. The automated door timing that is part of short dwell times at stations means people may not be able to get on at their station before the doors close.

This is not a failure in a train transit system with frequent trains.  You wait for the next train.  But keep in mind this is not at all how the bus worked.  So people understandably are trying to rush onto the train, and they are trying to get the doors open to do so.

6. Getting off and on magnified

The next thing that will happen is if people have learned they may not get off and on the train as designed, they will change behaviours in ways that magnify the problem.

People worried about getting off will stand near the doors even if it isn’t their stop, which means they will slow people who need to get off the train.

People worried about getting on will stand near the doors and rush the doors, which means they will slow people who need to get off the train.

So as soon as people lose confidence in the train it gets even worse.

7. Apparently the doors can error out in two ways.  If the door tries to close three times and it can’t, it will error out, which the train operator can reset.  But if the door is physically out of alignment, this is basically an unfixable error until it is realigned.

This is where the real problem comes.  Failed doors are to be expected in transit systems.  But the train control (CBTC) system we have (Thales SelTrac™) in combination with the train we have (Alstom Citatis Spirit) has this decision in its risk matrix: a train with failed doors is not allowed to move under automated train control.

My thanks to Ken Woods (@drivesincircles) for explaining the train control issue on Twitter.

This was the eye-opening tweet for me:

He goes on to provide additional detail:

CBTC also enforces train suitability, meaning the CBTC system will not allow a train to move with a safety issue like an open door.  So, bypassing that safeguard requires us to bypass CBTC, making the train itself invisible to the other trains being controlled by CBTC.
— Ken Woods (@drivesincircles) October 9, 2019

Once bypassed, we have to move that invisible train back to the depot, and prevent other trains from getting too close. A bypassed train can only move at 25kph, and for obvious reasons cannot stop at stations.
— Ken Woods (@drivesincircles) October 9, 2019

I blinked too. The train will not authorize traction with an open door and an active VOBC. No idea if this is an Alstom or Thales thing, but the door loop override kills movement until the train is cut out.
— Ken Woods (@drivesincircles) October 9, 2019

(VOBC means Vehicle On-Board Controller or sometimes Vehicle On-Board Computer.)

And this CBTC interaction with the trains is where everything falls apart.

Because the train can’t move under automated control, the entire less-than-5-minutes train system running on dual tracks gets replaced with a single track under automated control and a manual track where the train slowly chugs back to be repaired.

This means trains now arrive at something like 15 minute or longer intervals.

But Rush Hour peak demand means hundreds of people arriving continuously by bus at Blair and Tunney’s, which means they have to be cleared out on packed trains every 5 minutes or less, or the stations become dangerously crowded.

Which is what happened.

We should just be grateful that people managed this massive overcrowding.

UPDATE: Ken Woods saysCBTC no longer needs to be cut out when bypassing doors.”  So this should fix the major cascade issue that leads to big train delays.  END UPDATE

Immediate Fixes

>> Dwell Time

Probably the easiest fix is to change the dwell times for the trains, particularly at busy stations.  This means just change the door times so they are open longer.  This will mean longer end-to-end train rides for everyone, but should greatly reduce the door issues.

>> Boarding Decals

We could also put down boarding decals.  People in Ottawa love following signs.  But this means the doors have to always be at the same position, regardless of train direction or train configuration, and I’m not sure this is the case (you’d have to check with OC Transpo).

TTC platform decals
Decals from TTC expanding boarding decals test to southbound St George platform

>> Straphangers

Install straps so that people can stand safely anywhere in the train.

>> Buses

If we are still having capacity issues, OC Transpo needs to add buses back into the system.  Yes, I know this is a terrible option.  It seems like there are some peak demand points, so these could be e.g. express buses that go only Blair to uOttawa or only Tunney’s to Parliament.

Medium-Term Fixes

>> Change Automated Control Scenarios

The most important fix of all is to examine train failure modes, and re-evaluate when a train should be excluded from automated (CBTC) control.  The goal should be to find mitigations so that exclusion from automated control is minimized.

As long as it is safe to do so, it is way way better to run an empty train with a door fault under automated control, than to shut down an entire track and massively increase the time between trains.

UPDATE: Ken Woods saysCBTC no longer needs to be cut out when bypassing doors.”  So this should fix the major cascade issue that leads to big train delays.  END UPDATE

>> Min Headway

If we can get headways (spacing between trains) even lower, say 3 minutes or less, it will ease platform demand.  But I understand there are risks with pushing the system to tight spacing, and so this is something to set as a goal for the medium term.

However, headway is more complicated than it might initially seem, as the rail operators have to switch from one end of the train to the other at the end stations.

On a 4 minute headway, the train pulls in and leaves again within 240 seconds if it is precisely on time. It takes the operator 120 seconds to change ends. – Ken Woods

Long-Term Fixes

For Stage 2, Ottawa should look at side seating for the trains.

But this is a design decision with consequences too: it means long standing commutes for people coming from the most distant stations, and it means some people having to stand on totally uncrowded trains outside of Rush Hour.

Please feel free to correct me if anything above is wrong.

Context

The thing is, this really is mainly a combination of factors that cascade at Rush Hour.  The system is very pleasant and reliable outside of peak demand.  In a way there are two different systems, which makes for a challenging design problem.  If you’ve only been on the train during peak demand hours, you should try it out during the weekend or in the middle of the day; it’s quite a different experience.

OC Transpo’s Plans

The good news is OC Transpo knows what they are doing, so they are already putting in place some of the key elements above, including:

  • A plan to install strap hangers in trains;
  • Adjusting dwell times (the amount of time a door is kept open) at stations aligning the timing to passenger volume and train frequency times;
  • Installing markings on platforms guiding customers on where to wait, so as to not block customers who are stepping off trains. [So I guess train doors are at consistent locations after all.]

Thanks to Councillor Glen Gower for sharing this information in his blog (found via Twitter).

UPDATE 2019-10-16: OC Transpo has posted two letters explaining the situation and giving planned actions, one on October 8, 2019 and one on October 10, 2019.  The October 10 letter is the one extracted above.  As a reminder, this is fairly specific to door faults causing system problems; there are lots of other kinds of problems the trains can have that require them to go back to the maintenance depot.  END UPDATE

UPDATE 2019-10-18: OC Transpo has released a web page called The O-Line with details about train and related transit issues and planned solutions.

SIDEBAR: Train terminology

UPDATE 2020-02-19: Corrected explanation of TCMS, VOBC and CBTC below.  I had misunderstood what the difference between TCMS and VOBC was.  END UPDATE

In The O-Line they talk about the Train Control Management System (TCMS).  This is the computer on an individual train.  Like all computers it can have errors and need to be reset.  In addition to the TCMS, each train has a Vehicle On-Board Controller (VOBC), which is the component that communicates with the central system (particularly in relation to position of the trains).  The central control system for all the trains is called Communications-Based Train Control (CBTC).  END SIDEBAR

The O-Line covers some key topics including O-Train doors, improvements to stations, improvements to bus operations, and Winter Operations.

END UPDATE

I have to agree with this Canadian Press article: Despite Ottawa’s LRT woes, experts say don’t judge right away.

All the train-related emojis

Since these emoji are tiny on most devices, and since most people just type “train” and select something, and since many people are not too bothered about which one to use, they tend to get jumbled up.  But anyway, here is what they’re supposed to be used for:

Trains

🚈 Light Rail

  • Light Rail is the correct emoji for the Ottawa Line 1 LRT
  • U+1F688

🚂 Locomotive (steam train)

  • With the Wakefield steam train gone, the Canada Science & Technology Museum is the best place to see these, e.g. the Steam exhibition
  • U+1F682

🚆 generic train

  • This is the closest emoji for Ottawa’s Line 2 diesel trains
  • U+1F686

🚄 High-Speed Train

  • Does not apply to any train in Canada
  • U+1F684

🚅 Bullet Train

  • Does not apply to any train in Canada
  • Typically used for Shinkansen trains, but applies to any train with a “streamlined bullet nose”
  • U+1F685

🚝 Monorail

  • U+1F69D

🚇 Metro (subway)

  • U+1F687

🚞 Mountain Railway

  • U+1F69E

🚊 Tram

  • The difference between light rail and a tram is that a tram runs at street level in a city, often with stops beside the sidewalk.  May run in mixed traffic.  The original form of rail mass transit in cities.  In North America often called a streetcar or a trolley.
  • U+1F68A

🚟 Suspension Railway

  • It’s kind of odd that there is an emoji for this as suspension railways are very rare.  The handful of suspension railways includes Wuppertal in Germany & Shonan and Chiba in Japan.
  • U+1F69F

Rail Cars

🚃 Railway Car

  • It’s not really clear what kind of railway car this is.
  • The train emojis are not really designed to be assembled together.  Some face left, some face forward, and you can’t flip the direction.  So you can make a train going left like this 🚂🚃🚃🚃
    but you can’t really make a generic train with cars 🚆🚃🚃
    or a light rail train with engines on both ends 🚈🚃🚃🚈
    plus there’s no consistency between different designs for this emoji on whether the railway car has a pantograph (overhead connection to electrical wires) or not.
  • U+1F683

🚋 Tram Car

  • The tram emojis are not designed to be assembled together.  A tram ends up looking like 🚊🚋🚋.
  • It’s definitely an electric tram, with a pantograph (overhead connection to electrical wires).
  • U+1F68B

Train Stations

🚉 (Train) Station

  • It’s really more train platform than train station
  • U+1F689

Ⓜ️ Circled M

  • Commonly indicates a 🚇 Metro stop
  • U+24C2

Rails

🛤️ Railway Track

  • These are all pretty much terrible at a small size.  Microsoft’s looks more like a mountain than railway tracks (and appears to show the railway heading directly for the mountain).
  • They aren’t designed to be lined up, so they look weird side-by-side: 🛤️🛤️🛤️
  • U+1F6E4

Ottawa O-Train Specific

While it might seem like the red O emoji ⭕ is ideal for the O-Train, there are two issues:

  1. It’s actually called Heavy Large Circle, so for people using screen readers, it would probably sound like “Heavy Large Circle Train”, not “O-Train”.
  2. It has a specific meaning in a Japanese context: “an alternative to a [checkmark] in Japan for a something that is correct”.

Previously:
September 10, 2019 Ottawa LRT Stage 1 Line 1 in Emojis
April 12, 2015 iOS Travel emoji – railway vs tram